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Male infertility affects approximately two million men annually.
Medical factors of male infertility include the following.
Azoospermia refers to no or very low levels of sperm in the semen. This may be the result of lack of sperm production or it may be that the sperm is not being transported properly. Depending on the cause, treatment options range from medication to minimally-invasive procedures.
Congenital Bilateral Absence of the Vas Deferens (CBAVD)
With CBAVD, the two vas deferens, the part of the male reproductive system that transport the sperm for ejaculation, fail to form properly prior to birth. If the vas deferens are absent, there may be an opportunity to retrieve sperm from the body surgically. CBAVD accounts for approximately 1 percent to 2 percent of all infertility in men and can be the result of a genetic disease such as cystic fibrosis.
Hypospadia is a rare condition that involves a misplaced urinary opening within the penis. Hypospadia is usually the result of a birth defect, and surgery is needed to correct this condition.
Retrograde ejaculation is a fairly common condition where semen travels to and is discharged through the bladder rather than ejaculated from the penis. This condition can often be caused by medications, health conditions such as diabetes, or by surgery that affects the nerves or muscles that control the opening of the bladder. Retrograde ejaculation is usually diagnosed with a urinalysis, and often can be corrected.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, and infections of the male genitalia and male reproductive system can also cause infertility. These infections are often treatable with medication, however treatment does not always reverse the damage that is causing the infertility.
Varicoceles refer to enlarged varicose veins in the scrotum that prevent adequate blood flow or may cause reverse blood flow. Approximately 40 percent of men with infertility have varicoceles. Treatment options may or may not involve surgery.